Gardening Terms

A brief glossary of gardening terms

In case you are uncertain of some of the gardening terms used on this, or other sites, we have compiled a list of those that are more commonly used.

If there are any others you feel we have missed, then please feel free to add them in the comments section and we will update the list with the definition.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


A

Abortive. Failure to develop, faulty

Accessory buds. Buds more than one in an axil.

Achene. A small dry, indehiscent fruit with in a thin wall. eg sunflower, dandelion

Acicular. Slender and pointed; needle like. i.e. leaf

Acuminate. Tapering to a long point. IE leaf

Adnate. Joined to a part or organ of a different kind. IE stamens joined to petals

Adventitious buds. Buds appearing spontaniously in places that they might not be expected to. IE root buds from wounds, vegetaive buds on roots

Air layering. Layering an aerial shoot, by means of mechanical damage and wrapping a growing medium around the wound

Alternate. When leaves are not arranged opposite or in whorls on the stem

Annual. Life cycle of the plant from seed to death in one year (season)

Anther. Part of the stamen producing pollen. On top of a filament or sessile

Apetalous. Without petals

Apical. At the top (apex)

Asexual. Sexless pollination
Auricle. Part projecting from the base of some leaves or petals

Axil. The junction of leaf or flower with the stem

Axillary. In an axil.

Axis. Longitudal part of the plant around which plant parts are arranged. Primarily consists of stem and roots

Index


B

Bark. Outer element of a stem or root when this is a corky layer in woody plants

Bark graft. Inserting and nailing a scion shoot with 4-5 buds between the bark and exposed wood, by making a vertical slit and sealing with wax

Base. Bottom of a plant or plant organ

Basal Plate. Flattened stem found in bulbs<br.
Berry. A pulpy fruit from a sinle pistil with one or more seeds. Ie strawberry

Bi- or Bis-. In latin words meaning twice or two

Biennial. Of two seasons’ duration from seed to maturity and death.

Bifoliolate. When a leaf is made up of two leaflets

Bilobed. When having two lobes

Bipinnate. Each leaflet also pinnate

Blade. Description when a leaf or petal is expanded. Ie blade of grass

Blanching. Preventing parts of a plant grening up. Ie clery or asparagus

Bole. Refers to the runk of a tree

Bottom-heat. Raising the temperature of the growing medium above that of the ambient air, by applying heat below the soil

Bract. Very small leaves that are found normally in or around flowers, flower stalks or inflorescence; sometimes large and brightly coloured. IE Poinsettia

Breaking. Term to describe growth from a bud. Ie breaking dormancy

Bristly. With stiff hairs or bristles.

Bud. Defines the rudimentary stage of growth of a shoot, leaf, root or flower. Representing active growth of, or dormant stage. Also as a scion or description of a cutting, in propagation. Ie two bud cutting

Budding. Inserting a scion bud into the rootstock through an inscision in its bark.

Bulb. Plant storage organ normally below ground, consisting of basal plate with roots emerging below and leaf scales and apical bud above

Bulbel. Juvenile bulb clone produced from the mother bulb<br.
Bulbiferous. Produces bulbs

Bulblet. Bulbels produced in a leaf axil or within the flowers

Bulbous. Like a bulb

Bush. Low shrub without a main trunk

Index


C

Callus. Un-organized tissue growth, associated with cutting propagation (precursor to root initiation) or plant injury

Calyx. Outer covering of the flower parts, made up of sepals

Cambium. Plant tissue lying between the xylem and phloem. Produces new xylem and phloem and is necessary for all secondary growth in plants. Observed as the annual rings in woody plants

Capillary. Like hair strands

Carpel. leaf unit of a simple or compound pistil

Catkin. Unisex spike flowers, without petals, having scaly and usually decidious bracts

Caulicle. Small stalk or stem

Cellular. Made up of cells

Chip budding. Placement of chip cut from the budwood, with a bud, is placed into a clean cut made in the rootstock stem

Cirrhiferous. Tendril bearing

Cladophyllum. Branch functioning as foliage. IE asparagus.

Cleistogamous. Flowers self pollination prior to opening. IE Viola odorata Violets

Close fertilization. self-fertilization

Clove. Individual part of a composite bulb. IE garlic

Coalescence. The union of similar parts or organs, or of those in the same series as stamens with stamens and petals with petals.

Composite. Plants typically having flowers composed of ray flowers, disc flowers or both; any plant of the family Asteraceae
Compound. Multiple similar parts in one plant organ. IE compound leaf, made up of multiple leaflets

Compound (serpentine) layering. Several layers resulting from a single stem

Cone. A collection of flowers or fruits either beneath scales or with the scales. When detached, forms a fruit like body, often woody

Coniferous. Plant producing cones

Cordate. Heart-shaped, with leaf stalk attached to the cleft

Cork/corky. Non-living part of the bark. Commercial cork comes from the bark of Quercus ilex

Corm. Food storage organ, often below ground, which is ‘bulb’ like. IE crocus, glagladiolus

Cormel. Juvenile corm produced from a mother corm

Cormlet. Juvenile corm produced in the leaf axils or flower

Corolla. Inner whorl of the perianth. Petals of a flower considered to be a separate unit or group

Corona. (Crown) Any outgrowth or appendage between, or on, the corolla and stamens. IE trumpet shaped cup on a daffodil

Corymb. Short and broad, often flat, indeterminate flower cluster

Cotyledon. Sometimes called seed leaf. primary leaf/leaves of the embryo. Either emerges and becomes green or remains in the seed

Cleft. Splitting of a cut stem down its central axis by 5-7.5cm

Cleft graft. Inserting tapered two scion shoots with 4-5 buds into a cleft and sealing the wound with wax

Creeper. Plant that spreads though an ability to root throughout the length of a trailing shoot

Cross. The offspring of any two flowers that have been fertilized

Crossing. Carrying out cross pollination

Cross fertilization. Fertilization by pollen from another flower

Cross pollination. Transfer of pollen from pistil of one flower to another

Crop. Cultivated plants when described as a group; to harvest a crop; to plant, grow or yield a crop; total yield of a crop in reference to a season or place

Crown. All of the plant parts above the ground including stem; of woody plants, is the branches, leaves and reproductive organs growing from the main stem or trunk; also see corona

Cuneate. Triangular, leaf stem attached to a point

Cupule. Cup that an acorn sits in

Cuticle. Membrane lying over the epidermis; the external rind or skin of a plant or part

Cutting. Vegetative part of a plant used in (asexual) propagation

Index


D

Deciduous. Falling off at maturity. Commonly used to describe plants that shed their leaves during winter

Decumbent. Lying or growing on the ground but with erect or rising tips

Defoliation. The loss or falling of leaves

Determinate. Does not grow indefinitely. Growth of the central stem or axis stops upon the development of inflorescence

Dehiscent. Spontaneous opening at maturity to release its contents, such as fruit, anther or sporangium

Deltate. Triangular shaped, leaf stem attached to a side, rather than point

Di-. Dis,-. Two or occurring twice

Dicots. Flowering plants with two cotyledons, net veined leaves and stem that grows by deposit on the outside

Dicotyledon. With two cotyledons

Diffuse. Branching or spreading growth. IE creepers

Digitate. Divided into finger-like lobes

Disc flower. Flower head composed of many florets. IE Thistle or florets at the centre of a daisy

Division. Form of propagation involving separation or splitting of a plant into several root bearing parts

Dorsal. Back or outer surface of a plant organ

Double. Description of flowers which have more than the usual number of petals

Downy. Covered with very short and weak soft plant hairs

Drupe. A fruit where the outer layer is normally a thin skin, the middle layer is fleshy and the inner layer (the pit) is hard and stony. The pit is usually one seed. IE stone fruit

Drupelet. Fruit made up of many drupes. IE raspberry

Index


E

Effuse. Loosely spreading; very diffuse

Elliptic. Oval, with or without a point. IE leaf

Elongate. Lengthen; stretch out

Embryo. Developing young plant in the seed

Endocarp. The inner layer or wall of a (fruit) pericarp. IE the stone of a peach surrounding the seed

Endosperm. Nutritive storage tissue in the seeds of gymnopserms (seed plants)

Epi. Prefix meaning upon, beside, near to, over, anterior, outer

Epicarp. The outer layer of the pericarp

Epicotyl. That part of the embryonic plant above the cotyledons

Epidermis. Outer layer of cells that forms the boundary between the plant and the external world. Can be covered in woody plants by the periderm

Epigeous. Type of germination where the cotyledons emerge above the soil surface

Epiphyte. Plant growing on another non parasitically or by means of some other raised support. Moisture and nutrients are obtained from the air, rain and accumulated debris. IE orchids or Air plants

Evergreen. Maintains leaf canopy throughout the year. Opposite of deciduous

Exocarp. The outer layer of the pericarp. IE skin of a peach

Eye. Area at the centre of the flower in a distinct colour from the main; a bud on a tuber. IE on a potato

Index


F

F1 hybrid. First filial generation of seeds from a cross between two distinctly different parents. Progeny is new and uniform, often with hybrid vigour

Falcate. Sickle-shaped. IE leaf

Fasciated. Abnormal widening and/or flattening of the stem

Feminine. Pistillate (in higher plants)

Fertile. When reproductive parts, seed, spores, seeds or fruit, are functional; able to produce or bear a crop; soil rich in nutrients required for growth; highly and continuously productive

Fertilization. Union of male, pollen, and female, ovule, gametes in plants

Fetid. Having a disagreeable odour

Fibrous. Having, consisting of, or resembling fibres

Fibro-vascular. Made up of both fibres and ducts; combination of fibrous and vascular structure

Filament. Stalk of the anther

Filiform. Thread or filament-shaped. IE leaf

Flabellate. Semi-circular shaped or fan -like. IE leaf

Flaccid. Soft; lax and limp; wilted, not turgid

Flagging. Wilting; often used for fresh cuttings or transplanted seedlings

Flora. The plant population considered as a group, of a particular country, region or period of time; book describing this population

Florets. Individual flowers of composites and grasses; also when very small flowers that make up a very dense form of inflorescence.IE cauliflower

Floriferous. Flower bearing; bearing or capable of bearing many flowers

-foliate. In combination: leaved or having leaves. IE trifoliate: three-leaved

-foliolate. In combination: having leaflets. IE trifoliolate: of three leaflets

Follicle. Dry, single chambered dehiscent fruit that splits open only along one seam to release its seed

Forked. Branching or divided into nearly equal parts

Frond. Leaf of fern; compound leaf of a palm; leaflike thallus, as of seaweed or lichen

Fruit. The ripened pericarp or pericarps with the adnate parts; the seed bearing organ

Funicle. The stalk or stipe that attaches an ovule or seed to the wall of the ovary

Index


G

Gamete. Either the male or female sex cell

Germination. The commencement of growth of a seed or spore typified by the emergence of a radicle or extension of the epicotyl or hypocotyl

Glabrous. Hairless or smooth

Glaucous. Covered with a greyish, bluish or whitish “bloom” or waxy coating that easily rubs off

Glume. One of the two basal bracts of a grass spikelet

Graft. Union or point of union of a shoot or bud with a growing plant by insertion or attachment; plant produced by union of scion and rootstock

Grafting. Method of attaching or inserting a scion in a plant in order to produce an union that will allow the scion to grow there

Index


H

Habit. Description of the look, appearance or method of growth. IE upright, open, decumbent.

Habitat. Particular place, or environment, in which a plant normally grows

Hairs. Generalisation of small and slender outgrowths from the epidermis. IE root hairs

Hastate. Pointed with barbs, shaped like a spear, with pointed lobes at the base of the leaf

Haulm. Straw-like stems, of grasses, peas, beans or potatoes residual at crop harvest; also stems of palm leaves

Head. Inflorescence made up of many disc and or ray florets (capitulum) or dense collection of small flowers and florets (IE cauliflower). Sometimes refers to plant parts rising from stem or trunk in woody plants. IE head of standard rose.

Heel. The basal end of a cutting used in propagation; often retaining a small part of the parent plant attached to the young shoot being used

Heel in. Insert shoots, cuttings, young plants into soil before inserting or planting to keep them turgid (moist); firming soil around newly transplanted trees and shrubs with your heel

Heliotropism. Growth toward or away from light of the sun

Herb. Plant not producing persistent woody stem, which naturally dies back to the ground at the end of the growing season: aromatic culinary or medicinal plant

Herbaceous. Herb like; having characteristics of a herb as opposed to a woody plant

Hermaphrodite. Plant having both male and female reproductive organs

Higher plants. Vascular plants; any plants in which the phloem transports sugar and the xylem water and salts

Hilum. The scar on a seed marking attachment to the funicule

Hip. Fruit of the roses. Closed fruit with achenes inside

Hirsute. Hairy with rough or coarse hairs

Hoary. Covered with a dense white or grey hair

Homogenous. Only one type of flower on the plant; also having stamens and pistils that mature at the same time

Hybrid. A cross between parents that differ in one or more inheritable characteristics, often of different species. Progeny often sterile.

Hybrid vigour. Vigour enhanced through hybridisation

Hygroscopic. Capable of absorbing moisture from the surrounding environment

Hyphae. Thread-like filaments forming the mycelium of a fungus

Hypocotyl. That part of the axis of a plant embryo or seedling lying below the cotyledons and above the radicle

Index


I

Immersed. Covered completely in liquid; submerged

Imperfect flower. Having either stamens or pistils, but not both

Indehiscent. Not opening at maturity. IE seed pod

Indeterminate. Continuing to grow at the apical meristem indefinitely and not terminating in an inflorescence

Indigenous. Native or naturally occurring to a region, country etc.; not introduced

Inferior. Situated below other parts; inferior ovary lies below the attachment of other flower parts. IE marrow

Inflorescence. Part of the plant that consists of the flower bearing stalks; arrangement of the flowers on a common stem (flower cluster)

Inter-. Prefix meaning between or among. IE interplant, plant between

Internode. The span of stem between two nodes (joints)

Intorted. Twist in and out, twine, wind

Introduced. Brought from another region/country or habitat (introduced from the wild), either intentionally or otherwise

Index


J

Jointed. With nodes

Index


K

Kernel. Grain or seed of grass enclosed in a husk; inner seed of a nut or fruit stone

Knot. The point on a tree from which a stem or branch grows; node

Index


L

Labiate. Lipped; flowers with the corolla divided into two liplike parts; belonging to the mint family Labiatae

Lacerate. Jagged, deeply cut edges

Laciniate. Jagged edge or fringe into narrow pointed lobes

Lamina. Expanded area of a leaf or petal; blade of a leaf

Lanceolate. Lance shaped; much longer than broad; tapering from a wide base to the apex

Lateral. Situated on or at the side.

Layer. A rooted stem detached from the parent plant after layering

Layering. Vegetative propagation involving the inducement of roots along a parent plants stem while still attached

Leaf, complete. Of three parts: blade, petiole, stipules (usually 2).

Leaf-bud. Point where the leaf is attached to the stem; node

Leaflet. One part of a compound leaf; secondary leaf

Leaf stalk. The stem of a leaf; petiole

Legume. A pod that splits into two valves with seeds attached to one edge of the valves; member of the pea family, Fabaceae
Lemma. In grasses, the flowering glume; outer or lower of the two bracts that enclose the flower

Lenticular. Lentil shaped; shaped like a biconvex lens

Ligneous. Woody; having the texture or appearance of wood

Ligule. A strap like organ such as the corolla of a ray flower; membrane or projection between the sheath and blade of a grass leaf

Limb. The expanded tip of a plant organ such as a petal or corolla lobe; one of the main branches of a tree

Linear. Elongated and narrow with nearly parallel sides

Lineate. Marked with lines

Linguiform. Tongue shaped

Lip. One of the two parts in an unequally divided corolla or calyx; modified upper petal of an orchid flower

Lobe. Any part or segment of a plant organ, that is not entirely separated, but appears to have a division; with several points

Locule. Compartment or chamber of an ovary or anther.

Lorate. Strap shaped

Index


M

Mericarp. One carpel of an umbelliferous fruit

Mesocarp. Middle layer or part of a pericarp; the part between the endocarp and exocarp. IE the flesh of a peach

Midrib. The principal vein running down the centre of a leaf blade

Mono-. Prefix meaning one, single, alone

Monocotyledon. With a single cotyledon

Morphology. The form and structure of an organism without consideration of function

Mound layering. Drawing soil up around the base of the plant and enabling young shoots to take root

Mule. Alternative word for a cross or hybrid

Multifid. Many cuts or clefts forming narrow lobes

Mycelium. Vegetative part of a fungus, composed of a mass of branching thread-like hyphae

Index


N

Naked flower. With no petals; without calyx and corolla

Nectariferous. Nectar bearing

Nectary. A glandlike structure or organ that secretes nectar

Nerve. Secondary veins in a plant leaf

Netted. Reticulated veins or nerves of a leaf that may be raised above the surface

Neuter. A flower in which the stamens and pistil are absent or non-functional; neutral; sexless.
Node. The point on a stem where the leaf is joined; joint; knot; leaf-bud

Nodal. Situated near a node. IE nodal cutting, just below the node

Nucleus. The central kernel of a seed

Nut. An indehiscent, hard-shelled, one-loculated, one-seeded fruit (hazelnut); a seed within a fruit having a hard shell (almond)

Index


O

Obconical. Shaped like a cone and attached at the pointed end

Obcordate. Heart-shaped, leaf stem attached to the tapering point

Oblanceolate. Lance shaped, broadest at apex, tapering back to base

Oblong. Elongated with roughly parallel sides

Obovate. Egg-shaped with narrow end at the stalk. IE leaf

Obovoid. Egg-shaped with narrow end attached to stem. IE fruit

Obsolete. Not evident or apparent; rudimentary

Obtuse. Blunt or rounded tip. IE leaf

Odd-pinnate. Pinnate leaf with a terminal leaflet

Offshoot. A plant developing from the base of a mother plants

Orbicular. Circular shape. IE leaf

Ovary. Ovule-bearing lower part of a pistil that ripens into the fruit

Ovate. Egg-shaped; broad and round at the base, tapering to the tip. IE leaf

Ovule. Structure in seed plants containing embryo sac, that develops into a seed after fertilization

Index


P

Palmate. With leaflets or lobes spreading from the base of the leaf; palm- or hand-like

Panicle. A branched cluster of flowers in which the branches are racemes

Parasitic. Plant that lives in or on another from which it obtains nourishment, while contributing nothing to the host

Paripinnate. Even pinnate lacking a terminal leaflet

Parthenogenetic. Seed developing without fertilization

Pedate. Palmate with cleft lobes

Pedicel. Stem of one flower that attaches to the main stem of the inflorescence

Peduncle. Stem of a single flower or a group of pedicels

Peltate. Leaf stem is under the leaf rather than at the margin

Perennial. A plant which lives for more than two growing seasons. All trees and shrubs are perennials. Herbaceous perennials die back to underground organs

Perfect flower. One that has both stamens and pistil

Perfoliate. The stem appears to pass through the leaf

Peri-. Prefix meaning around, about, enclosing or near

Perianth. Outer part of the flower consisting of the calyx or corolla or both

Pericarp. Develops from the wall of the ovary; fruit wall; in fleshy fruits, divided into exocarp, mesocarp and endocarp

Perigynous. Having sepals, petals and stamens around the edge of a cuplike receptacle containing the ovary. IE rose

Persistent. Remaining attached; not falling off

Petal. Any of the separate parts of the corolla of the flower

Petaloid. Resembling a petal in colour and shape

Petiole. Leaf-stalk

Petiolule. Stalk of a leaflet

Phyllodium. Leaf-like petiole and no leaf blade. IE some acacias

Pileus. The umbrella-like fruiting body at the top of a stalked fleshy fungus. IE mushroom; cap

Pinnate. With two rows of leaflets; feather-like

Pinnatifid. Leaves with pinnate lobes that are connected and not discrete leaflets

Pinnatipartite. leaves parted in a pinnate way, but connected and not separate leaflets

Pinnatisect. Leaf cut in a pinnate way, but not to the mid-rid

Pip. A rootstock of some plants, used for propagation. IE lily-of-the-valley; seed of a fruit. IE apple

Pistil. The female, ovule-bearing organ of a flower, including the stigma, style, and ovary

Pistillate. Having pistils and no stamens; female only flowers

Pitted. Having little depressions or cavities

Plumose. Resembling a plume or feather-like

Pod. A dehiscent several seeded pericarp (fruit); seedpod; to remove seeds from a pod

Pollen. Grains produced by the anther, containing the male gamete, resembling a fine powder

Pollination. The process of transferring pollen from the anther to the stigma

Poly-. Prefix meaning many, excessive, abnormal

Polygamous. Having separate male and female flowers on the same plant.

Pome. A fleshy fruit with several seed chambers and outer fleshy part. IE apple

Prickle. A non-woody spine-like body arising from the bark or epidermis

Procumbent. Trailing or lying flat on the ground without rooting

Proliferous. Freely producing offshoots or buds particularly in unusual places, such as shoots from flowers

Proterandrous. Anthers maturing before pistils

Proterogynous. Pistils maturing before anthers

Pseudo-. Prefix meaning false, close resemblance

Pseudobulb. The thick bulb-like swelling in stems above ground. IE some orchids

Pubescent. Covered with short, soft hairs; downy

Pulverulent. Covered with a fine powder or dust

Pulvinate. CSwelling at the base of petiole or leaflet

Punctate. Having tiny spotsor depressions

Pungent. Ending in stiff, sharp points or tips. IE leaf; unpleasant taste

Putamen. Hard, shell-like covering of a nut or stone fruit

Index


Q

Index


R

Raceme. An inflorescence with stalked flowers arranged singularly along the main common stem

Racemose Being or resembling a raceme

Rachis. Main stem or axis of an inflorescence or compound leaf; petiole of a frond

Radicle. The downward part of a plant embryo that develops into a root

Ramification. Structure of branching parts; offshoot; the process of dividing into branches

Ray. Outer modified florets of some composites, with an extended or strap-like part to the corolla; also branch of an umbel

Receptacle. Enlarged or elongated end of the stem, on which some or all of the flower-parts are borne or group of florets in a head (daisy); also capsule-like (rose)

Recurved. Bent or curved downward or backward

Reflexed. Sharply (recurved) bent downward or backward

Reniform. Kidney-shaped. IE leaf

Repent. Creeping; rooting at the nodes

Retrorse. Bent or turned over back or downward

Rhizome. Horizontal, usually underground stem that can send out roots or shoots from its nodes; rootstock

Rhizos. Prefix meaning root

Rhomboid. Diamond shaped. IE leaf

Rib. Primary vein, or any prominent vein or nerve in a plant organ

Rootstock. Root or part of root used for propagation; plant grown specifically to provide the root part of a grafted plant; rhizome

Rosula. A rosette; rose-like cluster of leaves or bracts

Rosulate. In a rosula or rosette

Rudimentary. Incompletely or imperfectly developed; embryonic

Runcinate. Sharply lobed or cut leaves that have the segments directed backward

Runner. A slender trailing shoot taking root at the nodes; plant derived from a rooted trailing shoot. IE strawberry; stolon

Index


S

Saddle graft. An inverted “V” of identical length, 2cm long, is notch cut into the scion wood to fit over the reverse on the rootstock before being bound in grafting tape and sealed with wax

Saggitate. Arrowhead-shaped. IE leaf

Samara. Indehiscent winged fruit. IE Acer
Sap. The watery fluid that circulates through a plant, carrying food and other substances

Scale. Specialised leaf or bract, mostly dry and as a protective covering

Scape. Leafless flower stem arising from the ground

Scion. Bud or shoot of mother stock used in grafting, budding or cuttings

Seed. The ripened ovule

Seedling. A young plant raised from seed

Self-fertilization. Fertilization taking place with pollen from the same flower; close-fertilization

Self-pollination. Transfer of pollen from stamen to pistil of same flower; close-pollination

Sepal. One of the separate leaves of a calyx

Separation. Propagation by detaching naturally occurring asexual bodies or organs. IE offshoots, stolons

Sessile. Stalkless and growing directly from the stem

Set. Mature or develop. IE set seed, after pollination

Sheath. Protective structure surrounding a plant organ. IE base of a grass leaf

Shoot. Germinate “first shoots”; any part of a vascular plant above ground, with stem and buds or leaves. Tip is called an apical meristem

Shrub. A woody perennial plant, smaller than a tree with several stems rather than a main trunk; a bush

Side veneer graft. Tapered scion shoot inserted into a wedge cut in a dormant rootstock of similar diameter. Secured with grafting tape and wax

Sinus. The space or recess between two lobes of a leaf or other expanded organ
.
Slip. A softwood cutting “slipped” or pulled off

Spadix. A fleshy spike of minute flowers, usually enclosed within a spathe. IE arums

Spathe. The bract or leaf surrounding or subtending a flower-cluster or a spadix

Spatulate. Leaf shaped like a spoon

Spawn. The dried mycelium of mushrooms used in propagation.

Splice graft. Joining scion wood and rootstock of identical diameter over a 2cm diagonal cut. Sealed with grafting tape and wax

Spine. A strong and sharp-pointed woody body normally from the wood of the stem

Sporangium. A spore-case; a sac or body bearing spores

Spore. A simple reproductive body, containing no embryo

Sporocarp. A receptacle containing sporangia or spores

Sporophyll. A spore-bearing leaf

Sprout. Newly grown bud or shoot; to begin growth of leaves, shoots etc; germination of seed

Spur. A tubular or sac-like extension of a calyx or corolla; short or stunted branch of a tree

Stalk. The stem of any organ, as the petiole, peduncle, pedicel, filament, stipe

Stamen. The pollen producing organ of a flower, normally with a filament and anther

Staminate. Having stamens and no pistils; male only flowers

Standard. Large upper petal of a pea flower or upright petals of an iris; shrub or small tree from grafting or training has a single stem with a crown at its apex

Stem. The main axis of a plant; leaf-bearing and flower- bearing as distinguished from the root-bearing axis

Sterile flower. Without pistils; staminate

Stigma. The receptive surface of a carpel where pollen germinates

Stipe. The stalk of a pistil; petiole of a fern-leaf.

Stipule. A growth at the base of a petiole; usually two

Stock. The plant on which the scion is grafted; rootstock

Stolon. A shoot that grows at or below the ground and form new plants at the nodes; runners

Stoloniferous. Stolon-bearing

Stone. The “pit” or putamen of a stone fruit

Stool. A clump of roots or rootstock that may be used in propagation; also a plant from which layers are taken

Stratification. Pre-treatment of seeds to simulate winter conditions required to ensure germination

Style. Elongated part of the pistil between the ovary and stigma

Sub-. Prefix below, under. less than complete, nearly

Subulate. Awl-shaped leaf with a tapering point

Succulent. Juicy; fleshy; plants adapted for drier environments

Sucker. A shoot arising from the roots or beneath the surface of the ground of the parent

Superior. Applied to an ovary situated above the other flower parts. IE Hypericum, true berries and drupes

Suture. Seam-like joint or grove marking a natural division or opening

Index


T

T budding. Budding by means of inserting scion bud beneath the bark through a cut in the shape of a “T”

Tap-root. Main root of a plant following the plant axis straight down into the ground, normally stouter than lateral roots

Taxonomy. Classification of organisms based on similarities of structure, origin, etc

Tendril. A slender, coiling modified leaf or leaf part by which some twining plants attach themselves to objects for support of the plant stem

Ternate. Divided into threes. IE leaf

Testa. The outer protective layer of a seed, often thick and hard; seed coat

Thallus. A flat leaf-like organ; a plant body without true stems or roots or leaves or vascular system. IE algae, mosses

Throat. The opening of a tubular corolla or calyx where the tube joins the limb

Tomentose. Covered with short, dense matted hairs; wool-like

Tortuous. Twisted or winding

Torus. The receptacle of a flower

Tree. A woody perennial plant of one main stem (trunk) and usually a distinct crown; plant resembling a tree

Tri-. Prefix meaning three or thrice

Trifoliate. Three leaflets

Trifoliolate. Having three leaflets. IE clover

Tripinnate. Pinnatel compound where each leaflet is itself bipinnate

Triternate. Three times ternate; petiole split into three with each part bearing three leaflets

Truncate. Leaf appears to be squared /cut off at the end

Tuber. Swollen underground stem (potato) or root (dahlia) with buds from which new shoots can grow; an organ for reproduction and food storage

Tubercle. .A small rounded projection, swelling or lump. IE on roots of legumes

Tuberiferous. Producing or bearing tubers

Tuberous. Having or resembling a tuber

Tunicated. Having a tunic; having or consisting of concentric layers of tissue. IE bulb of an onion

Turgid. Swollen or full of liquid; the normal rigid state of plants or plant cells; not wilting or flaccid

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U

Umbel. An inflorescence resembling an umbrella, in which the flowers rise from the same point on the main stem

Uni-. Prefix meaning one or singular

Unifoliate. With a single leaf

Unisexual. Only of one sex; staminate or pistillate

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V

Vascular. Lignified tissue in higher plants for the transport of water, minerals and photosynthetic products through the plant; Vessel/duct

Vein. Fibro-vascular framework in a leaf or flower

Ventral. Front; anterior; inner. Opposite of back or dorsal.

Vernalization. Subjecting seeds or plants to lower temperatures in order to break low temperature seed dormancy or for the development of flowers

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W

Watershoot. Juvenile adventitious shoot growing from branch or trunk. Often in proliferation after major pruning work

Whip and tongue graft. Similar to a splice graft, except that a whip on the rootstock and tongue on the scion are cut into the wood to enable the scion wood to be held in place

Whorl. Leaves or flowers arranged in a circle at a node

Wilt. Loss of turgidity; flaccid; said of plants under water stress or as a result of disease; drooping or shrivelling

Woolly. Soft and often matted plant hairs on surface of plant organs

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X

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Y

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Z

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